Theproject examined the types of innovation that occur in peripheral, sparsely populated areas. It used a broad definition of innovation, ranging from the commercialisation of research and development, to the introduction of new services, business models and ways of working. It focused on sectors where innovation is rooted in the natural resources or sparse population of peripheral areas (e.g. alternative energies; wildlife/landscape tourism; food processing and marketing; cultural industries; and the use of ICT in public service delivery). It also examined the kinds of interaction that are important for innovation in remote areas and considered how innovation is shaped by local strengths (e.g. natural resources) and by external demand and supply-side factors (e.g. regulatory frameworks, external markets, government and business decisions). It focused in particular on peripheral areas of the Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the UK.