Does the quality of government improve the administrative performance of regions in European Union (EU) Cohesion Policy? This article analyses the relationship between the quality of government and multiple dimensions of administrative performance in Cohesion Policy. Using primary data on government quality combined with EU performance data for the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) in the period 2007–13, regression analysis is undertaken for 173 European regions. The results confirm that government quality is a key determinant of administrative performance in terms of financial compliance, timely spending and outcomes. The findings support the need for capacity-building in regions with low quality of government to improve policy implementation.